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Федотова И.Г., Старосельская Н.В., Резнк И.В., Толстопятенко Г.П.

Теория и практика устного и письменного юридического перевода


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ENVIRONMENTAL LAW
Экологическое право

Vocabulary

~marine pollution загрязнение морской среды
deterioration of the environment / environmental degradation ухудшение состояния окружающей среды
United Nations Environmental Programme (UNEP) Программа ООН по окружающей среде (ЮНЕП)
World Commission on Environment and Development Международная комиссия по вопросам окружающей среды и развитию
sustainable development устойчивое развитие
deplete истощать
Convention on Biological Diversity Конвенция о биологическом разнообразии
Framework Convention on Climate Change Рамочная конвенция об изменении климата
Convention to Combat Desertification in those Countries Experiencing Serious Drought and/or Desertification, Particularly in Africa
Конвенция по борьбе с опустыниванием в тех странах, которые испытывают серьезную засуху и/или опустынивание, особенно в Африке
greenhouse gases парниковые газы
carbon dioxide углекислый газ
fossil fuel органическое топливо
depletion of the ozone layer истощение озонового слоя
Convention for the Protection of the Ozone Layer Конвенция по защите озонового слоя
ban запрещать
chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) хлорфторуглероды
deforestation обезлесение
desertification опустынивание

A.: Часто ли за прошедшие десятилетия поднимались вопросы, связанные с защитой окружающей среды?
B.: In the 1950s and 1960s environmental concerns rarely appeared on the international agenda. During the 1960s, there were some agreements made regarding marine pollution. But with increasing evidence of the deterioration of the environment on a global scale, the international community has since the 1970s shown escalating alarm over the impact of development on the ecology of the planet and human well-being.

A.: Существует ли связь между экономическим развитием и ухудшением состояния окружающей среды?
B.: The relationship between economic development and environmental degradation was first placed on the international agenda in 1972 at the United Nations Conference on the Human Environment, held in Stockholm. After the Conference governments set up the United Nations Environmental Programme (UNEP), which today continues to act as the leading environmental agency.
In 1987, the World Commission on Environment and Development, established by the General Assembly, put forward the concept of sustainable development as an alternative approach to one simply based on unconstrained economic growth.

A.: В чем основной смысл концепции «устойчивого развития»?
B.: Sustainable development is the satisfaction of current human needs without depleting the natural resource base for future generations.

A.: Какие практические шаги должны сделать правительства и гражданское общество в плане претворения в жизнь концепции устойчивого развития?
B.: Fortunately, many of the practical tools and actions for promoting sustainable development are available through the three so8called Rio Conventions: the Convention on Biological Diversity, the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, and the United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification.
All three conventions address the complex interactions among human and natural systems. These systems and the physical processes of biodiversity, climate change and desertification are intimately interlinked. They represent different aspects of the same challenge – how to ensure the sustainable exploitation of the earth’s resources.

A.: Что конкретно должен сделать каждый из нас для достижения устойчивого развития мирового сообщества в целом?
B.: Achieving sustainable development worldwide depends largely on changing patterns of production and consumption – what we produce, how it is produced and how much we consume.
Central to the issue is the fact that using fewer resources and wasting less is simply better business. It saves money and generates higher profits. It also protects the environment by conserving natural resources and creating less pollution. In doing so, we sustain the planet for the enjoyment and well-being of future generations.

A.: Верны ли предположения о том, что деятельность человека способствует изменению климата на планете?
B.: Yes. There is substantial evidence that human activities contribute to the build-up of “greenhouse gases” in the atmosphere, leading to a gradual rise in global temperatures. In particular, carbon dioxide is produced when fossil fuels are burned to generate energy, or when forests are cut down and burned. According to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, climate models predict that global temperatures will rise by about 1 to 3.5 degrees centigrades by 2100. This projected change is larger than any climate change experienced over the last 10,000 years – with potentially significant impact on the global environment.

A.: А к каким последствиям может привести истощение озонового слоя?
B.: The ozone layer is a thin layer of gas in the upper atmosphere (about 12 to 45 kilometres above the ground) which shields the Earth’s surface from the Sun’s damaging ultraviolet rays. Exposure to increased ultraviolet radiation is known to result in skin cancer, and to cause unpredictable damage to plants, the food chain and the global ecosystem.

A.: Можно ли избежать подобных последствий?
B.: UNEP helped to negotiate and now administers the historic Vienna Convention for the Protection of the Ozone Layer (1985), and the Montreal Protocol (1987) and its Amendments. Under these agreements, developed countries have banned the production and sale of chlorofluorocarbons, a chemical that depletes the ozone layer. Developing countries must stop production by 2010. If measures had not been taken in accordance with the Protocol, the ozone depletion would have been much more serious and would have continued for many more decades.

A.: Какие еще глобальные катастрофы угрожают человечеству?
B.: Among the most hazardous are deforestation, desertification and marine pollution.

 
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