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Introduction ....6

1. Phonetics as a Linguistic Discipline .....6
2. Divisions and Branches of Phonetics ....7
3. Methods of Phonetic Investigation .....10
4. Phonetics and Other Disciplines .....12
5. Spheres of Practical Application ..... 14

Chapter I. The Functional Aspect of Speech Sounds .....16

1.1. The Phoneme .....17

1.1.1. The definition of the phoneme ....17
1.1.2. The phoneme as a unity of three aspects .....18
1.1.3. Phonological and phonetic mistakes in pronunciation .....23

1.2. Transcription .....24

1.3. Main Trends in the Phoneme Theory .....25

1.4. Methods of Phonological Analysis .....28

1.4.1. The aim of phonological analysis .....28
1.4.2. Distributional method of phonological analysis .....29
1.4.3. Semantically distributional method of phonological analysis .....30
1.4.4. Methods of establishing the phonemic status of speech sounds in weak positions. Morphonology .....32

1. 5. The System of English Phonemes .....34

1.5.1. The system of consonants .....35
1.5.2. The system of vowels ....39
1.5.3. Modifications of sounds in connected speech .....45

1.5.3.1. Modifications of consonants .....45
1.5.3.2. Modifications of vowels .....47

Summary .....48

Chapter II. Syllabic Structure of English Words .....51

2.1. The Phenomenon of the Syllable .....51
2.2. Syllable Formation ....53
2.3. Syllable Division (Phonotactics) ....53
2.4. Functional Aspect of the Syllable .....55
Summary .....56

Chapter III. Word Stress .....57

3.1. Definition. The Nature of Stress .....57
3.2. English Word Stress. Production and Perception .....59
3.3. Degrees of Word Stress .....60
3.4. Placement of Word Stress .....61
3.5. Tendencies in the Placement of Word Stress .....64
3.6. Functions of Word Stress .....65
Summary .....66

Chapter IV. Intonation .....68

4.1. Definition of Intonation .....68
4.2. Components of Intonation .....70
4.3. Intonation Pattern as the Basic Unit of Intonation .....72
4.4. Notation .....78
4.5. Functions of Intonation .....79

4.5.1. Communicative function as the basic function of intonation .....79
4.5.2. Distinctive function .....81
4.5.3. Organising function .....85
4.5.4. Intonation in discourse .....88
4.5.5. Pragmatic function .....93
4.5.6. Rhetorical function .....95

4.6. Rhythm ....96

4.6.1. Speech rhythm. Definition. Typology .....96
4.6.2. Rhythmic group as the basic unit of rhythm .....98
4.6.3. Rhythm in different types of discourse .....98
4.6.4. Functions of rhythm .....101

Summary .....102

Chapter V. Phonostylistics .....105

5.1. The Problems of Phonostylistics ....105

5.1.1. Phonostylistics as a branch of phonetics ....105
5.1.2. Extralinguistic situation and its components .....107
5.1.3. Style-forming factors .....109
5.1.4. Classification of phonetic styles .....112

5.2. Stylistic Modifications of Speech Sounds .....114

5.3. Stylistic Use of Intonation ....116

5.3.1. Phonostyles and their registers .....116
5.3.2. Informational style .....118

a) spheres of discourse .....118
b) informational texts (reading) .....120
c) informational monologues (speaking) .....123
d) informational dialogues .....128
e) press reporting and broadcasting .....133

5.3.3. Academic style .....137
5.3.4. Publicistic style .....140
5.3.5. Declamatory style. Artistic reading .....144
5.3.6. Conversational style .....148
Summary .....156

Chapter VI. Social and Territorial Varieties of English .....158

6.1. Social Phonetics and Dialectology ....158
6.2. Spread of English .....162
6.3. English-based Pronunciation Standards of English .....163

6.3.1. British English .....163
6.3.2. Received pronunciation .....164
6.3.3. Changes in the standard .....166
6.3.4. Regional non-RP accents of England .....172
6.3.5. Welsh English .....177
6.3.6. Scottish English .....178
6.3.7. Northern Ireland English .....180

6.4. American-based Pronunciation Standards of English ..... 182

6.4.1. General American .....183
Summary .....188

References .....190